1.35 Investigator / Institution An expression meaning "the investigator and/or institution, where required by the applicable regulatory requirements". 1.36 Investigator's Brochure A compilation of the clinical and nonclinical data on the investigational product(s) which is relevant to the study of the investigational product(s) in human subjects (see 7. Investigator’s Brochure). 1.37 Legally Acceptable Representative An individual or juridical or other body authorized under applicable law to consent, on behalf of a prospective subject, to the subject's participation in the clinical trial. 1.38 Monitoring The act of overseeing the progress of a clinical trial, and of ensuring that it is conducted, recorded, and reported in accordance with the protocol, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), Good Clinical Practice (GCP), and the applicable regulatory requirement(s). 1.39 Monitoring Report A written report from the monitor to the sponsor after each site visit and/or other trial-related communication according to the sponsor’s SOPs. 1.40 Multicentre Trial A clinical trial conducted according to a single protocol but at more than one site, and therefore, carried out by more than one investigator. 1.41 Nonclinical Study Biomedical studies not performed on human subjects. 1.42 Opinion (in relation to Independent Ethics Committee) The judgement and/or the advice provided by an Independent Ethics Committee (IEC). 1.43 Original Medical Record See Source Documents. 1.44 Protocol A document that describes the objective(s), design, methodology, statistical considerations, and organization of a trial. The protocol usually also gives the background and rationale for the trial, but these could be provided in other protocol referenced documents. Throughout the ICH GCP Guideline the term protocol refers to protocol and protocol amendments. 1.45 Protocol Amendment A written description of a change(s) to or formal clarification of a protocol. 1.46 Quality Assurance (QA) All those planned and systematic actions that are established to ensure that the trial is performed and the data are generated, documented (recorded), and reported in compliance with Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and the applicable regulatory requirement(s).
1.47 Quality Control (QC) The operational techniques and activities undertaken within the quality assurance system to verify that the requirements for quality of the trial-related activities have been fulfilled. 1.48 Randomization The process of assigning trial subjects to treatment or control groups using an element of chance to determine the assignments in order to reduce bias. 1.49 Regulatory Authorities Bodies having the power to regulate. In the ICH GCP guideline the expression Regulatory Authorities includes the authorities that review submitted clinical data and those that conduct inspections (see 1.29). These bodies are sometimes referred to as competent authorities. 1.50 Serious Adverse Event (SAE) or Serious Adverse Drug Reaction (Serious ADR) Any untoward medical occurrence that at any dose: - results in death, - is life-threatening, - requires inpatient hospitalization or prolongation of existing hospitalization, - results in persistent or significant disability/incapacity, or - is a congenital anomaly/birth defect (see the ICH Guideline for Clinical Safety Data Management: Definitions and Standards for Expedited Reporting). 1.51 Source Data All information in original records and certified copies of original records of clinical findings, observations, or other activities in a clinical trial necessary for the reconstruction and evaluation of the trial. Source data are contained in source documents (original records or certified copies). 1.52 Source Documents Original documents, data, and records (e.g., hospital records, clinical and office charts, laboratory notes, memoranda, subjects' diaries or evaluation checklists, pharmacy dispensing records, recorded data from automated instruments, copies or transcriptions certified after verification as being accurate copies, microfiches, photographic negatives, microfilm or magnetic media, x-rays, subject files, and records kept at the pharmacy, at the laboratories and at medico-technical departments involved in the clinical trial). 1.53 Sponsor An individual, company, institution, or organization which takes responsibility for the initiation, management, and/or financing of a clinical trial.
1.54 Sponsor-Investigator An individual who both initiates and conducts, alone or with others, a clinical trial, and under whose immediate direction the investigational product is administered to, dispensed to, or used by a subject. The term does not include any person other than an individual (e.g., it does not include a corporation or an agency). The obligations of a sponsor-investigator include both those of a sponsor and those of an investigator. 1.55 Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Detailed, written instructions to achieve uniformity of the performance of a specific function. 1.56 Subinvestigator Any individual member of the clinical trial team designated and supervised by the investigator at a trial site to perform critical trial-related procedures and/or to make important trial-related decisions (e.g., associates, residents, research fellows). See also Investigator. 1.57 Subject/Trial Subject An individual who participates in a clinical trial, either as a recipient of the investigational product(s) or as a control. 1.58 Subject Identification Code A unique identifier assigned by the investigator to each trial subject to protect the subject's identity and used in lieu of the subject's name when the investigator reports adverse events and/or other trial related data. 1.59 Trial Site The location(s) where trial-related activities are actually conducted. 1.60 Unexpected Adverse Drug Reaction An adverse reaction, the nature or severity of which is not consistent with the applicable product information (e.g., Investigator's Brochure for an unapproved investigational product or package insert/summary of product characteristics for an approved product) (see the ICH Guideline for Clinical Safety Data Management: Definitions and Standards for Expedited Reporting). 1.61 Vulnerable Subjects Individuals whose willingness to volunteer in a clinical trial may be unduly influenced by the expectation, whether justified or not, of benefits associated with participation, or of a retaliatory response from senior members of a hierarchy in case of refusal to participate. Examples are members of a group with a hierarchical structure, such as medical, pharmacy, dental, and nursing students, subordinate hospital and laboratory personnel, employees of the pharmaceutical industry, members of the armed forces, and persons kept in detention. Other vulnerable subjects include patients with incurable diseases, persons in nursing homes, unemployed or impoverished persons, patients in emergency situations, ethnic minority groups, homeless persons, nomads, refugees, minors, and those incapable of giving consent. 1.62 Well-being (of the trial subjects) The physical and mental integrity of the subjects participating in a clinical trial. 2. THE PRINCIPLES OF ICH GCP
2.1 Clinical trials should be conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki, and that are consistent with GCP and the applicable regulatory requirement(s). 2.2 Before a trial is initiated, foreseeable risks and inconveniences should be weighed against the anticipated benefit for the individual trial subject and society. A trial should be initiated and continued only if the anticipated benefits justify the risks. 2.3 The rights, safety, and well-being of the trial subjects are the most important considerations and should prevail over interests of science and society. 2.4 The available nonclinical and clinical information on an investigational product should be adequate to support the proposed clinical trial. 2.5 Clinical trials should be scientifically sound, and described in a clear, detailed protocol. 2.6 A trial should be conducted in compliance with the protocol that has received prior institutional review board (IRB)/independent ethics committee (IEC) approval/favourable opinion. 2.7 The medical care given to, and medical decisions made on behalf of, subjects should always be the responsibility of a qualified physician or, when appropriate, of a qualified dentist. 2.8 Each individual involved in conducting a trial should be qualified by education, training, and experience to perform his or her respective task(s). 2.9 Freely given informed consent should be obtained from every subject prior to clinical trial participation. 2.10 All clinical trial information should be recorded, handled, and stored in a way that allows its accurate reporting, interpretation and verification. 2.11 The confidentiality of records that could identify subjects should be protected, respecting the privacy and confidentiality rules in accordance with the applicable regulatory requirement(s). 2.12 Investigational products should be manufactured, handled, and stored in accordance with applicable good manufacturing practice (GMP). They should be used in accordance with the approved protocol. 2.13 Systems with procedures that assure the quality of every aspect of the trial should be implemented. 3. INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD/INDEPENDENT ETHICS COMMITTEE (IRB/IEC) 3.1 Responsibilities 3.1.1 An IRB/IEC should safeguard the rights, safety, and well-being of all trial subjects. Special attention should be paid to trials that may include vulnerable subjects.
3.1.2 The IRB/IEC should obtain the following documents: trial protocol(s)/amendment(s), written informed consent form(s) and consent form updates that the investigator proposes for use in the trial, subject recruitment procedures (e.g. advertisements), written information to be provided to subjects, Investigator's Brochure (IB), available safety information, information about payments and compensation available to subjects, the investigator’s current curriculum vitae and/or other documentation evidencing qualifications, and any other documents that the IRB/IEC may need to fulfil its responsibilities. The IRB/IEC should review a proposed clinical trial within a reasonable time and document its views in writing, clearly identifying the trial, the documents reviewed and the dates for the following: - approval/favourable opinion; - modifications required prior to its approval/favourable opinion; - disapproval / negative opinion; and - termination/suspension of any prior approval/favourable opinion. 3.1.3 The IRB/IEC should consider the qualifications of the investigator for the proposed trial, as documented by a current curriculum vitae and/or by any other relevant documentation the IRB/IEC requests. 3.1.4 The IRB/IEC should conduct continuing review of each ongoing trial at intervals appropriate to the degree of risk to human subjects, but at least once per year. 3.1.5 The IRB/IEC may request more information than is outlined in paragraph 4.8.10 be given to subjects when, in the judgement of the IRB/IEC, the additional information would add meaningfully to the protection of the rights, safety and/or well-being of the subjects. 3.1.6 When a non-therapeutic trial is to be carried out with the consent of the subject’s legally acceptable representative (see 4.8.12, 4.8.14), the IRB/IEC should determine that the proposed protocol and/or other document(s) adequately addresses relevant ethical concerns and meets applicable regulatory requirements for such trials. 3.1.7 Where the protocol indicates that prior consent of the trial subject or the subject’s legally acceptable representative is not possible (see 4.8.15), the IRB/IEC should determine that the proposed protocol and/or other document(s) adequately addresses relevant ethical concerns and meets applicable regulatory requirements for such trials (i.e. in emergency situations). 3.1.8 The IRB/IEC should review both the amount and method of payment to subjects to assure that neither presents problems of coercion or undue influence on the trial subjects. Payments to a subject should be prorated and not wholly contingent on completion of the trial by the subject. 3.1.9 The IRB/IEC should ensure that information regarding payment to subjects, including the methods, amounts, and schedule of payment to trial subjects, is set forth in the written informed consent form and any other written information to be provided to subjects. The way payment will be prorated should be specified.
3.2 Composition, Functions and Operations 3.2.1 The IRB/IEC should consist of a reasonable number of members, who collectively have the qualifications and experience to review and evaluate the science, medical aspects, and ethics of the proposed trial. It is recommended that the IRB/IEC should include: (a) At least five members. (b) At least one member whose primary area of interest is in a nonscientific area. (c) At least one member who is independent of the institution/trial site. Only those IRB/IEC members who are independent of the investigator and the sponsor of the trial should vote/provide opinion on a trial-related matter. A list of IRB/IEC members and their qualifications should be maintained. 3.2.2 The IRB/IEC should perform its functions according to written operating procedures, should maintain written records of its activities and minutes of its meetings, and should comply with GCP and with the applicable regulatory requirement(s). 3.2.3 An IRB/IEC should make its decisions at announced meetings at which at least a quorum, as stipulated in its written operating procedures, is present. 3.2.4 Only members who participate in the IRB/IEC review and discussion should vote/provide their opinion and/or advise. 3.2.5 The investigator may provide information on any aspect of the trial, but should not participate in the deliberations of the IRB/IEC or in the vote/opinion of the IRB/IEC. 3.2.6 An IRB/IEC may invite nonmembers with expertise in special areas for assistance. 3.3 Procedures The IRB/IEC should establish, document in writing, and follow its procedures, which should include: 3.3.1 Determining its composition (names and qualifications of the members) and the authority under which it is established. 3.3.2 Scheduling, notifying its members of, and conducting its meetings. 3.3.3 Conducting initial and continuing review of trials. 3.3.4 Determining the frequency of continuing review, as appropriate. 3.3.5 Providing, according to the applicable regulatory requirements, expedited review and approval/favourable opinion of minor change(s) in ongoing trials that have the approval/favourable opinion of the IRB/IEC. 3.3.6 Specifying that no subject should be admitted to a trial before the IRB/IEC issues its written approval/favourable opinion of the trial. 3.3.7 Specifying that no deviations from, or changes of, the protocol should be initiated without prior written IRB/IEC approval/favourable opinion of an appropriate amendment, except when necessary to eliminate immediate hazards to the subjects or when the change(s) involves only logistical or
administrative aspects of the trial (e.g., change of monitor(s), telephone number(s)) (see 4.5.2). 3.3.8 Specifying that the investigator should promptly report to the IRB/IEC: (a) Deviations from, or changes of, the protocol to eliminate immediate hazards to the trial subjects (see 3.3.7, 4.5.2, 4.5.4). (b) Changes increasing the risk to subjects and/or affecting significantly the conduct of the trial (see 4.10.2). (c) All adverse drug reactions (ADRs) that are both serious and unexpected. (d) New information that may affect adversely the safety of the subjects or the conduct of the trial. 3.3.9 Ensuring that the IRB/IEC promptly notify in writing the investigator/institution concerning: (a) Its trial-related decisions/opinions. (b) The reasons for its decisions/opinions. (c) Procedures for appeal of its decisions/opinions. 3.4 Records The IRB/IEC should retain all relevant records (e.g., written procedures, membership lists, lists of occupations/affiliations of members, submitted documents, minutes of meetings, and correspondence) for a period of at least 3 years after completion of the trial and make them available upon request from the regulatory authority(ies). The IRB/IEC may be asked by investigators, sponsors or regulatory authorities to provide its written procedures and membership lists. 4. INVESTIGATOR 4.1 Investigator's Qualifications and Agreements 4.1.1 The investigator(s) should be qualified by education, training, and experience to assume responsibility for the proper conduct of the trial, should meet all the qualifications specified by the applicable regulatory requirement(s), and should provide evidence of such qualifications through up-to-date curriculum vitae and/or other relevant documentation requested by the sponsor, the IRB/IEC, and/or the regulatory authority(ies). 4.1.2 The investigator should be thoroughly familiar with the appropriate use of the investigational product(s), as described in the protocol, in the current Investigator's Brochure, in the product information and in other information sources provided by the sponsor. 4.1.3 The investigator should be aware of, and should comply with, GCP and the applicable regulatory requirements. 4.1.4 The investigator/institution should permit monitoring and auditing by the sponsor, and inspection by the appropriate regulatory authority(ies). 4.1.5 The investigator should maintain a list of appropriately qualified persons to whom the investigator has delegated significant trial-related duties. 4.2 Adequate Resources
4.2.1 The investigator should be able to demonstrate (e.g., based on retrospective data) a potential for recruiting the required number of suitable subjects within the agreed recruitment period. 4.2.2 The investigator should have sufficient time to properly conduct and complete the trial within the agreed trial period. 4.2.3 The investigator should have available an adequate number of qualified staff and adequate facilities for the foreseen duration of the trial to conduct the trial properly and safely. 4.2.4 The investigator should ensure that all persons assisting with the trial are adequately informed about the protocol, the investigational product(s), and their trial-related duties and functions. 4.3 Medical Care of Trial Subjects 4.3.1 A qualified physician (or dentist, when appropriate), who is an investigator or a sub-investigator for the trial, should be responsible for all trial-related medical (or dental) decisions. 4.3.2 During and following a subject's participation in a trial, the investigator/institution should ensure that adequate medical care is provided to a subject for any adverse events, including clinically significant laboratory values, related to the trial. The investigator/institution should inform a subject when medical care is needed for intercurrent illness(es) of which the investigator becomes aware. 4.3.3 It is recommended that the investigator inform the subject's primary physician about the subject's participation in the trial if the subject has a primary physician and if the subject agrees to the primary physician being informed. 4.3.4 Although a subject is not obliged to give his/her reason(s) for withdrawing prematurely from a trial, the investigator should make a reasonable effort to ascertain the reason(s), while fully respecting the subject's rights. 4.4 Communication with IRB/IEC 4.4.1 Before initiating a trial, the investigator/institution should have written and dated approval/favourable opinion from the IRB/IEC for the trial protocol, written informed consent form, consent form updates, subject recruitment procedures (e.g., advertisements), and any other written information to be provided to subjects. 4.4.2 As part of the investigator's/institution’s written application to the IRB/IEC, the investigator/institution should provide the IRB/IEC with a current copy of the Investigator's Brochure. If the Investigator's Brochure is updated during the trial, the investigator/institution should supply a copy of the updated Investigator’s Brochure to the IRB/IEC. 4.4.3 During the trial the investigator/institution should provide to the IRB/IEC all documents subject to review. 4.5 Compliance with Protocol 4.5.1 The investigator/institution should conduct the trial in compliance with the protocol agreed to by the sponsor and, if required, by the regulatory authority(ies) and which was given approval/favourable opinion by the