Gene Expression: A Brief Overview
The process of using genetic instructions to synthesize gene products is known as Gene expression. Normally the products are the proteins. They perform important tasks such as enzymes, receptors, and hormones. Unlike ribosomal RNA/transfer RNA Genes do not do the coding function for proteins.
Genes are essential parts of DNA. They are the source of information of each cell inside the nucleus of a cell. The DNA's carry the genetic structures which are necessary for making the proteins. Each gene has individual instructions which code for a single protein.
DNAs are formed in a double helix format which includes two long strands, which are paired together. These strands have separate building grounds known as the nucleotide bases. These bases contain guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine (G, A, T, and C). They are arranged in triplets. Each of the triplets specifies a single amino acid.
DNAs can be traced on every cell in our body, apart from the ones that do not have nucleus inside them such as, cornfield cells of nails and skin, mature red blood cells. Every cell in our body is made of 46 chromosomes. Each of them is packed tightly and contain millions of gene sequence. Out of the 26 chromosomes, 23, we inherited from our father and the other 23 from our mother. The 22 chromosomes from each side are same and remaining is the sex chromosomes.
Our genes are explainable regarding both RNA and proteins. Point to be noted here is that we do not need each of the gene products or even in same amounts. Some of these products are harmful to the cells. They are expressed only after the death of cells. Expression of the genes is to be regulated for these causes.