Protein

A Quick Insight into DNA Replication and Repair Process

w cells and offspring through. Precisely, all humans inherit similar characteristics from their parents through DNA replication process. Typically, the primary objective of this replication process is to get a matching copy of the original DNA. 

If there is any problem or error in the process, it will lead to mutations. Even though the mutations are extremely disastrous to human cells, some mutations will only not bring any danger to the body. In fact, some of these mutations will play a significant role in diversifying cell offspring. Also, DNA replication process is vital for the growth of cells and reproduction system of the body. 

In contrast to DNA replication process, DNA repair is a pool of processes to identify and correct the damage to the DNA molecules within an encoded genome. The human bodies are subjected to DNA damage from normal metabolic activities and environmental factors like UV light and radiation. Because of this danger, around one million individual molecules face abrasions per cell per day. 

DNA repair process heavily relies on several factors including the age of the cell, the cell type, and the extracellular environment. If a human cell accumulates some DNA damages, it will face three possible situations –

  • A state of dormancy, which is irreversible (termed as senescence)
  • Cell suicide, commonly known as programmed cell death or apoptosis
  • Unregulated cell division, which will lead to a cancerous tumor 

The ability to repair DNA damage is essential for the integrity of its genome. Therefore, this ability is severely important to the normal functionality of the organism. To conclude, human life span is greatly influenced by DNA damage repair and protection system. 

Protein Separation: How To Separate Protein?

Identifying the protein itself plays a significant role in the study of its properties. Proper separation procedures are to be undertaken when removing it from a plant or animal tissue or even extracting it from a mixture.

Purification and separation procedures are vital when it comes to protein specific research or studies. Methods strictly rely on nature of protein as well as the solution.

Protein can be a part of other protein molecules, or it can only be surrounded by biological elements that are not protein. For study or research purpose, a small sample is all that will be needed. On the other hand, a much larger, purified quantity of protein sample may be required.

Protein Purification Techniques

Some factors might be included when it comes to protein purification procedures and techniques such as sample size requirement, a mixture of protein, an objective of extraction and much more. All of these factors provide an organized and united contribution to protein purification.

Protein Separation Methods

Chromatography is a very useful method when making use of the physical characteristics of the protein itself of other elements in the mix. For the purpose of dissolving the protein and the surrounding elements we can make use of gas, proper different chromatography methods. Access to chromatography related purification methods can be obtained from G-Biosciences.

For the separation or removal process of the target protein and containing the surroundings near it; sonication, centrifugation, filtration procedures may be used.

When extracting a bigger sample size, ammonium sulfate and precipitation processes may utilize in the mixture.

De/Non-Natured proteins can identify easily by making use of the gel electrophoresis method from the gel matrix. One or some the systems may be utilized depending on the nature of the protein when it comes to the purification of the respective protein.

Protein Stability: How To Analyze It Effectively?

Protein stability is one of the common problems in protein expression. This issue is a major problem in protein purification, storage, and formulation as well. Consequently, we are going to explain protein stability in brief so that everyone can understand why it is a hot topic for the Medicine industry.

Typically, if the proteins are folded appropriately, the will remain stable throughout the protein expression and purification. As a result, you can extract enough protein. In contrast to this situation, some proteins that is unstable throughout the protein purification process. In fact, some are so unstable that you will not be able to obtain any of them.

Several factors play a significant role in this volatile situation such as the amino acid sequence of the protein, host cell strain, protein construction. Due to these factors, the protein expression, and purification process becomes complicated.

Furthermore, the folded proteins are slightly stable under physiological conditions. Different other forces like electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic effects, and hydrogen bonding work as stabilizing factors. They are the primary driving forces for the protein folding process.

How To Analyze Protein Stability?

Several techniques have been used to determine whether a protein is stable or not. To make an analysis, different spectroscopic ways like – UV, fluorescence, and infrared are utilized. On the other hand, the essential thermodynamic processes, for example – differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to measure the effect of temperature on protein stability.

Besides, the all-important peptide-mapping process is another significant tool to find out the chemical changes within a protein like deamidation or oxidation.

Aside from the above techniques, you can also use HPLC to analyze the purity of protein. Other than these, many experts use various methods like SDS-PAGE, capillary electrophoresis, and isoelectric focusing to measure the stability. On top of it, you can determine the state of aggregation with particle size and arrayed instruments.

To put it simply, you will find many processes of measuring the protein stability. Nevertheless, all these complex processes suggest that analyzing the stability of a protein is not an easy task. Above all, keeping nature of protein structure intact is by far the most important factor for achieving any success with biopharmaceutical product.